Added: Onica Baier - Date: 20.12.2021 09:53 - Views: 40713 - Clicks: 6881
Sexually developing adolescents and emerging adults face sexual health risks as well as potentially negative outcomes of online sexual behaviors. In addition, we investigated whether these behaviors are actually related to negative health outcomes. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were used to test for gender and age differences and compute associations between risk behavior and negative outcomes.
The showed that the risk of unplanned pregnancy is low in the Netherlands. Although many young people stop using condoms with their partner after a while, most of them did not get tested for STIs.
More emerging adults aged 18—24 engage in sexting sending personal nude pictures and sex videos to othersbut the chance that these images are shared with other people than the intended recipient is higher among adolescents aged 12— The of this study can guide professionals working in sex education and sexual health services to focus their efforts on the risk behaviors in the Netherlands that deserve most attention. As children mature, exploring and developing their sexuality becomes part of growing up. Generally, this exploration goes gradually from less intimate behaviors e.
Unfortunately, when behaviors become more intimate, they are not completely risk-free. Having unprotected sex can lead to negative health outcomes such as STIs or unwanted pregnancy. Although this concept encompasses many different aspects, researchers are often limited in the amount of questions they can include in a survey. This is especially the case if sexual risk behavior is measured as part of a survey on health behavior or risk behavior in general, or if researchers want to link sexual risk behavior to many other factors.
In this case, operationalizations are often limited to one or two outcome measures [e. However, it is preferable to use a combination of multiple factors in order to get a clearer and more valid picture of the actual amount of risk involved, as Noar et al. Multiple answer options are to be Online Adult Dating Lawton woman over 35, for example, by asking how often condoms were used with the last sexual partner, rather than using a dichotomous measure for condom use at last sexual intercourse.
Several scholars indeed use multi-variable composites to measure sexual risk behavior. For example, a combination of condom non-use, frequency of sex, and of partners 9 or a combined measure of multiple sexual partners, sex under the influence of drugs and alcohol, inconsistent condom use, and involvement in prostitution However, as Warner et al.
If this Online Adult Dating Lawton woman over 35 partner has an STI, there is still a risk of contamination. This point is strengthened by the finding that among a sample of US girls aged 14 through 19 with only one lifetime sex partner, a substantial had still contracted an STI How often this strategy is applied by young people in Europe has not been documented well, as research on this topic mostly focuses on high-risk groups, such as men who have sex with men 13 and ethnic minorities or people with low socio-economic status 14 Although the risk of unplanned pregnancy is also included in most definitions of sexual risk behavior, the measures of sexual risk behavior described above are primarily related to the risk of STI and HIV.
When measuring the risk of unplanned pregnancy, a combination of multiple factors should also be taken into. This indicator, however, is mainly monitored among women who are married or in a relationship, which is less often the case among adolescent women In general, studies examining the risk of unplanned pregnancy among young people focus on contraceptive use, not taking these other conditions into.
Possibly, it is assumed that young people are fertile and do not intend to get pregnant, and that young people continue to be sexually active after their sexual debut. However, especially emerging adults [18—24 years old 18 ] may wish to start a family 19 In addition, some adolescents temporarily stop having sex or only have sex with same-sex partners, which rules out the possibility of getting pregnant Furthermore, the operationalization of contraceptive use is sometimes limited to one or two contraceptive methods, such as condoms 21 — 23or condoms and the contraceptive pill Since women and girls in Europe increasingly use other methods such as intrauterine devices IUDsa comprehensive measure of contraceptive use should also include these methods 2025 Contraceptive compliance should also be taken intoespecially with regard to short-acting contraceptives, as some contraceptive users do not use them consistently In this age of online communications, sexual risk behavior is no longer confined to the offline world.
Online sexual risk behavior is usually defined as either sexting i. Both kinds of behavior are not inherently risky. Sexting has become a normative part of youth sexual development, entailing positive emotions, and effects Online dating can be convenient. Mobile dating applications, for example, can help to make the first steps toward romantic or sexual contact, as some adolescents find communicating online easier than in real life However, both kinds of behavior i.
A systematic review on the prevalence of sexting revealed that this prevalence varies widely, but that young people generally receive more sexual images and messages sexts than they send Apparently, some personal sexually explicit images are sent to more than one receiver. This demonstrates the biggest risk involved in sexting: the risk that private sexually explicit images are shared with potentially many persons who were not meant to see it.
The invasion of privacy experienced by the adolescent and the embarrassment can have devastating effects in terms of self-esteem and feelings of depression, shame, and guilt or even suicidal thoughts 3. Young people who send sexts to a casual partner or someone unknown in real life appear to have a higher risk that this person will forward this sext to other people Besides sexting, the internet is also increasingly used for meeting partners, for example, by means of dating applications Although this behavior is also not necessarily risky, several studies did find associations between online dating and the risk of non-consensual sex 33 or an increased risk of STI infection Other research found a link between online sexual risk behaviors, including sexting and looking for a sexual partner online, and concurrent offline sexual risk behavior This is done separately for boys and girls, and for adolescents aged 12 through 17 and emerging adults aged 18 through 24with comparisons between gender and age groups.
Sex under the age of 25 investigates a range of topics related to sexual health. Therefore, the data of this survey provide us with the opportunity to investigate the complex scope of youth sexual risk behavior, both offline and online. Disentangling the risk involved in specific forms of sexual behaviors will shed light on the current prevalence of youth sexual risk behavior in the Netherlands.
Insight into these specific risk behaviors can guide professionals working in sex education and sexual health services to focus their efforts on the risks of young Dutch people where this is needed the most. Participants were recruited in two ways. First, secondary school students aged 12 through 16 years were recruited from randomly selected schools, geographically spread across the Netherlands.
This was done to compose a representative sample of the Dutch population of secondary school students in terms of grades and level of education. Of the selected schools, 60 immediately agreed to participate. If a school did not want to participate, a comparable school in the same region was approached. In total, schools that were approached did not want to participate. In the end, 4, secondary school students, from schools and classes, participated in the study. Second, older participants 17 through 24 years old were recruited via a sample drawn by Statistics Netherlands CBS from the municipal population registers.
Furthermore, 15 regional public health services recruited extra participants, through schools as well as municipal population registers, in order to ensure sufficient statistical power to carry out specific analyses concerning the young inhabitants of their own region. This resulted in another 12, participants aged 17 through The final sample consisted of 20, participants. To correct for selective non-response and overrepresentation of some regions, weighting techniques were applied.
As a result, the sample was representative of the Dutch youth population. Table 1 presents the demographic characteristics of the weighted sample. For the analyses on the risk of unplanned pregnancy, only participants who had had vaginal intercourse were included. Sexting and online dating were investigated for the total sample. The questionnaire included questions about the following demographics: gender, age, education, ethnic background, and religion.
In addition, a broad range of sexual behaviors, health outcomes, and aspects of being in love that adolescents could have experienced were assessed. Young people who had only limited sexual experience, did not receive subsequent questions on sexual intercourse and related topics e. Below, we will discuss the measures and computed factors that we used in this study.
First, we asked whether the participant had sex with their last partner once, or multiple times. Participants could indicate multiple methods. In addition, participants indicated where they met their last sexual partner. The participants in the age group 12 through 16 years were recruited via secondary schools. These schools were approached with information about the study. The school principal decided whether the school would participate or not. The participants in the age group 17 through 24 years were selected from the municipal population registers and received a letter at their home address, in which they were invited to participate.
They received 5 euros prior to participation, as a token of appreciation. They were reminded up to two times to participate in the study. The last letter also contained a leaflet with quotes of young people stating why it was important to participate. Secondary school students also received verbal instructions from their teachers, who had received written instructions from the researchers. The questionnaire was computerized, and all participants completed the survey online. Participants recruited in secondary schools completed the questionnaire during a regular class period, while participants selected from the municipal population register completed the questionnaire at home.
A weighing factor was used when reporting percentages, to correct for possible non-representativeness of the sample for the Dutch population. Because we had a non-simple random sample oversampled for certain subgroupswe used the Complex Samples module in SPSS. The analyses were done separately for boys and girls, and for adolescents and emerging adults. Furthermore, binary logistic regressions were used to test whether some risk indicators were associated with negative outcomes, controlling for age. To compensate for the increased chance of Type I error due to multiple comparisons, a ificance level of 0.
Preliminary analyses showed that Table 2 shows that between However, the proportion of participants reporting that their partner was a casual partner with whom they did not always use condoms is much smaller [ranging from Within long-term relationships, using condoms only at the start of this relationship is a strategy commonly used, byOnline Adult Dating Lawton woman over 35
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Offline and Online Sexual Risk Behavior among Youth in the Netherlands: Findings from “Sex under the Age of 25”